Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 14 pp 5895—5907

Combined analysis of expression, prognosis and immune infiltration of GINS family genes in human sarcoma

Kexin Zhang1,2, *, , Jian Zhou1, *, , Tong Wu1, , Qunyan Tian1, , Tang Liu1, , Wanchun Wang1, , Hua Zhong3, , Ziyuan Chen4, &, , Xungang Xiao5, , Gen Wu3, ,

  • 1 Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China
  • 2 Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
  • 3 Department of Orthopedics, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510900, Guangdong, China
  • 4 Department of Orthopedics, The First People’s Hospital of Changde City, Changde 415003, Hunan, China
  • 5 Department of Orthopedics, Chenzhou No.1 People’s Hospital, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan, China
* Equal contribution

Received: April 16, 2022       Accepted: July 5, 2022       Published: July 27, 2022
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2022 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the expression and prognostic value of GINS family in human sarcoma, as well as the association between the expression levels of the GINS family and sarcoma immune infiltration.

Results: We discovered that the mRNA expression levels of GINS1, GINS2, GINS3, and GINS4 were all higher in the majority of tumor tissues than in normal samples, of course, including sarcoma. Through the CCLE, all the four members expression were observed in high levels in sarcoma cell lines. In Gene Expression Profiling Analysis (GEPIA) and Kaplan-Meier Plotter, our results indicated that the poor overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse free survival (RFS) were tightly associated with the increased expression of GINS genes. In TIMER database, we found that highly expressed GINS was significantly correlated with the low infiltration level of CD4+ T cell and macrophage.

Conclusions: The four GINS family members were all the prognostic biomarkers for the prognosis of human sarcoma and can reduce the level of immune cell infiltration in the sarcoma microenvironment.

Methods: In terms of the expression levels of mRNA for GINS family members, a particular contrast in various cancers, especially human sarcoma, was conducted through ONCOMINE and GEPIA and CCLE databases. Kaplan-Meier Plotter was used to identify the prognostic value of GINS family in sarcoma. The relationship between the expression level of GINS and the infiltration of immune cells was analyzed in TIMER database.


GINS: Go, ichi, ni and san complex; CCLE: Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia; GEPIA: Gene Expression Profiling Analysis; OS: overall survival; DFS: disease-free survival; RFS: relapse free survival; STS: Soft tissue sarcomas; LPS: liposarcoma; US: Differentiated sarcoma; LMS: leiomyosarcoma; MFS: myxofibrosarcoma; SS: synovial sarcoma; MCM: minichromosome maintenance; TCGA: the Cancer Genome Atlas; GTEx: Genotype-Tissue Expression; HR: hazard ratio; CCLE: Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.