Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) rate of 95–99% in treating HCV. Several studies suggested that treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF), one type of DAAs, may be associated with increased risk of developing HCC. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential mechanisms of SOF on the development of HCC. OR-6 (harboring full-length genotype 1b HCV) and Huh 7.5.1 cells were used to examine the effects of SOF on cell proliferation and migration of HCC cells. SOF-upregulated genes in OR-6 cells were inspected using next generation sequencing (NGS)and the clinical significance of these candidate genes was analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We found that SOF increased cell proliferation and cell migration in OR-6 and Huh 7.5.1 cells. Several SOF-upregulated genes screened from NGS were confirmed by real-time PCR in OR-6 cells. Among these genes, PHOSPHO2, KLHL23, TRIM39, TSNAX-DISC1 and RPP21 expression were significantly elevated in the tumor tissues compared with the non-tumor tissues of HCC according to TCGA database. High expression of PHOSPHO2 and RPP21 was associated with poor overall survival of HCC patients. Moreover, knockdown of PHOSPHO2-KLHL23, TSNAX-DISC1, TRIM39 and RPP21 diminished cell proliferation and migration increased by SOF in OR-6 and Huh 7.5.1 cells. In conclusion, SOF-upregulated genes promoted HCC cell proliferation and migration, which might be associated with the development of HCC.