Research Paper Advance Articles

Influence of cardiovascular risk burden on pulmonary function trajectory: role of physical and social activities

Yang Bai1,2,3, *, , Jiao Wang1,2,3, *, , Ruixue Song4, , Zhangyu Wang1,2,3, , Xiuying Qi1,2,3, , Aron S. Buchman5, , David A. Bennett5, #, , Weili Xu1,2,3,6, #, ,

  • 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
  • 2 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin 300070, China
  • 3 Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition, And Public Health, Tianjin 300070, China
  • 4 Shandong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine of Shandong University, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China
  • 5 Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
  • 6 Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
* Equal contribution
# Co-last author

Received: March 18, 2022       Accepted: July 21, 2022       Published: August 4, 2022
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2022 Bai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The impact of cardiovascular risk burden on long-term trajectories of pulmonary function (PF) remains unclear. We examined the association of cardiovascular risk burden assessed by Framingham general cardiovascular risk score (FGCRS) with PF decline and explored whether cardiovascular diseases (CVD), physical and social activities play a role in the association. Within the Rush Memory and Aging Project, 1,442 participants (mean age:79.83) were followed up to 22 years. FGCRS at baseline was calculated and categorized into tertiles. Composite PF was measured annually based on peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in one second, and forced vital capacity. We found that the highest FGCRS was associated with faster PF decline (β: -0.013, 95% CI: -0.023 to -0.003) compared with the lowest FGCRS. There were significant interactions between higher FGCRS and low level of physical/social activity (β: -0.014, 95% CI: -0.026 to -0.003)/(β: -0.020, 95% CI:-0.031 to -0.009) or CVD(β: -0.023, 95% CI:-0.034 to -0.011) compared to the low FGCRS with high level of physical/social activity or without CVD (P-interaction<0.05). Our results suggest that higher cardiovascular risk burden is associated with a faster PF decline, especially among people with CVD. High level of physical activity and social activity appears to mitigate this association.


BMI: Body mass index; CI: Confidence interval; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; FEV1: Forced expiratory volume in one second; FGCRS: Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score; FVC: Forced vital capacity; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PEF: Peak expiratory flow; PF: Pulmonary function; SBP: Systolic blood pressure; TC: Total cholesterol.