Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 9 pp 4158—4175
CCL19 has potential to be a potential prognostic biomarker and a modulator of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) of breast cancer: a comprehensive analysis based on TCGA database
- 1 Department of Oncology, Nanjing Jiangning Hospital, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
- 2 Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jiangning Hospital, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
- 3 Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, China
Received: January 5, 2022 Accepted: May 2, 2022 Published: May 12, 2022https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204081
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2022 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The development of cancer was determined by not only the intrinsic properties of cancer cells, but also the communication between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment (TME). We applied ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT algorithms to calculate the immune/stromal component and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) in TME of BC. The results showed that immune component in TME predicted patients’ survival and associated with progression of BC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were primarily enriched in immune-related activities. Finally, CCL19 was acquired which shared the leading nodes in PPI network and was associated with patients’ survival. High expression of CCL19 predicted better prognosis and participated in progression of BC. Genes in CCL19 up-regulated group were enriched in immune-related activities and these functions might depend on the communications between CCL19 and multiple TICs in TIME. In conclusion, CCL19 functioned as a potential prognostic biomarker and a modulator of TIME in BC through communicating with various TICs.