Sarcopenia is a potential risk factor for weakness, disability and death in elderly individuals. Therefore, seeking effective methods to delay and treat sarcopenia and to improve the quality of life of elderly individuals is a trending topic in geriatrics. Caloric restriction (CR) is currently recognized as an effective means to extend the lifespan and delay the decline in organ function caused by aging. In this review, we describe the effects of CR on improving muscle protein synthesis, delaying muscle atrophy, regulating muscle mitochondrial function, maintaining muscle strength, promoting muscle stem cell (MuSC) regeneration and differentiation, and thus protecting against sarcopenia. We also summarize the possible cellular mechanisms by which CR delays sarcopenia. CR can delay sarcopenia by reducing the generation of oxygen free radicals, reducing oxidative stress damage, enhancing mitochondrial function, improving protein homeostasis, reducing iron overload, increasing autophagy and apoptosis, and reducing inflammation. However, the relationships between CR and genetics, sex, animal strain, regimen duration and energy intake level are complex. Therefore, further study of the proper timing and application method of CR to prevent sarcopenia is highly important for the aging population.