The relationship between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and aging, as well as the antiaging effects of BMSCs, was observed. An aging macaque BMSC model was established. We isolated BMSCs from young and aged macaques and used RT-PCR and Western blot to confirm the aging-related mRNAs and their expression, revealing that TERT, SIRT1 and SIRT6 expression was decreased in the aged BMSCs. The morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, proliferation potential, and antiaging effects of aged and young BMSCs on 293T cells were compared. The expression of aging-related genes and the difference between the secreted cytokines in natural aging and induced aging BMSCs were observed. The transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from macaques was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Finally, the transcriptional characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of gene transcription in aging macaques were investigated.