Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8454—8466
Endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids facilitates the repair of cardiotoxin-induced skeletal muscle injury in fat-1 mice
- 1 Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, PR China
Received: October 19, 2020 Accepted: January 22, 2021 Published: March 10, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202655
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of high endogenous levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on skeletal muscle repair and regeneration using a mouse cardiotoxin (CTX, 20 μM/200 μL) -induced gastrocnemius muscle injury model. Transgenic fat-1 mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene, encoding n-3 fatty acid desaturase, showed higher n-3 PUFA levels and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in gastrocnemius muscle tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining of gastrocnemius sections revealed increased muscle fiber size and reduced fibrosis in fat-1 mice on days 7 and 14 after CTX injections. Gastrocnemius muscle tissues from fat-1 mice showed reduced inflammatory responses and increased muscle fiber regeneration reflecting enhanced activation of satellite cells on day 3 after cardiotoxin injections. Gastrocnemius muscle tissues from cardiotoxin-treated fat-1 mice showed reduced levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Caspase 3 and Bax) and increased levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Survivin). Moreover, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced the incidence of apoptosis among cardiotoxin-treated C2C12 mouse myoblasts. These findings demonstrate that higher endogenous n-3 PUFA levels in fat-1 mice enhances skeletal muscle repair and regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury.