Figure 16. Influences of mutant and WT-TP53 on mitochondrial activity and glucose metabolism and effects of rapamycin and metformin. The effects of WT and mutant TP53 on key enzymes important in glycolysis and how they can influence metabolism and PDAC tumor growth. In our studies, we have examined the effect of GOF mutant TP53 and in some cases WT TP53. In addition, sites of interaction of the type 2 diabetes drug metformin and the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and their effects on AMPK and mTORC1 are indicated. TP53 can induce mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by regulating the expression of PUMA and other proteins.