Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 18564—18585

Chocolate consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a US population: a post hoc analysis of the PLCO cancer screening trial


Figure 1. Nonlinear dose–response analyses on energy-adjusted chocolate consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in the whole study population. The reference level was set at 0 servings/week. Hazard ratio was adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, marital status, study center, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, aspirin use, hormone use status for women, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake from diet, and consumption of red meat, processed meat, fruit, vegetable, whole grain, dairy, coffee, and tea. For all-cause and cancer mortality, the hazard ratio was further adjusted for family history of cancer. The red solid line represents the fitted nonlinear trend, and the purple short-dash line represents corresponding 95% confidence interval.