Figure 4. Carminic acid improves Nrf-2 activation in Fru-stimulated cells in vitro. Western blot analysis was used to determine (A) nuclear Nrf-2 and (B) cytoplastic Nrf-2 and Keap-1 expression levels in the Fru (5 mM)-incubated TCMK-1 and HK2 cells with or without CA (10 and 20 μM) for 24 h. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. n = 4 in each group. **P< 0.01 and ***P< 0.001 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05 and ++P< 0.01 compared with the Fru group.