Figure 3. Carminic acid suppresses oxidative stress in Fru-cultured cells. TCMK-1 and HK2 cells were exposed to Fru (5 mM) for 24 h with or without CA (10 and 20 μM). Then, all cells were collected for the subsequent studies. Intracellular ROS production, MDA levels, H2O2 levels and SOD activity were measured in (A) TCMK-1 and (B) HK2 cells. (C, D) RT-qPCR analysis was used to measure oxidative stress-associated factors in the cells. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. n = 4 in each group. **P< 0.01 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05 and ++P< 0.01 compared with the Fru group.