Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8916—8928

Protective effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on D-galactose-induced reproductive injury in male mice


Figure 3. Effects of GSLS on D-gal-induced changes in oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum of D-gal-induced mice. (A) malondialdehyde (MDA); (B) 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); (C) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); and (D) superoxide dismutase (SOD); (E) tumor necrosis factor-β1 (TNF-β1); (F) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); (G) interleukin-4 (IL-4); and (H) interleukin-6 (IL-6). All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 6). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to the NG; #p < 0.05, ##p <0.05 compared to the MG. NG: normal group, MG: D-gal model group, GS-L: D-gal + low dosage of GSLS group, GS-H: D-gal + high dosage of GSLS group.