Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8916—8928

Protective effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on D-galactose-induced reproductive injury in male mice


Figure 2. Effect of GSLS on D-gal-induced changes in oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and kidney tissues. (A) 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in liver; (B) superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver; (C) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in liver; (D) interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver; (E) 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in kidney; (F) superoxide dismutase (SOD) in kidney; (G) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in kidney; (H) interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in kidney. All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 6). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to the NG; #p < 0.05, ##p<0.05 compared to the MG. NG: normal group, MG: D-gal model group, GS-L: D-gal + low dosage of GSLS group, GS-H: D-gal + high dosage of GSLS group.