Figure 2. JNK1 represents a crucial regulator for a wide spectrum of physiological processes. In the white adipose tissue, JNK1 has been demonstrated to regulate expression of interleukin 6, which upon release into the circulation may act on the liver to decrease hepatic insulin sensitivity. Hepatic JNK1 action may downregulate insulin degradation, thus improving insulin half-life, and protecting from steatosis. JNK1 action in the skeletal muscle does impair local insulin sensitivity, although systemic glucose homeostasis is mostly unaffected. In the central nervous system, JNK1 is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity, the thyroid axis and growth, although the exact neuron populations mediating these effects have not been defined yet.